SELECT

Choose certain table columns to take further actions on them. Returns chosen columns.

Print all data of column col of table table:

SELECT COLUMN col FROM table;

Print all data of columns col0 and col1 of table table:

SELECT col0,col1 FROM table;

Show entire table table:

SELECT * FROM table;

Rename table

It is possible to rename tables on the select:

CREATE TABLE t (i INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (1), (2);
SELECT new_name.i FROM t new_name ORDER BY new_name.i;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

i
1
2

This can be useful to disambiguate when joining a table with itself.

Column that is a function of other columns

It is possible generate a selection that is a function of the row values:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 2), (-1, 3);
SELECT c0, c0 + c1, c0 FROM t;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

+------+---------+------+
| c0   | c0 + c1 | c0   |
+------+---------+------+
|    0 |       0 |    0 |
|    0 |       1 |    0 |
|    1 |       3 |    1 |
|   -1 |       2 |   -1 |
+------+---------+------+

Single values

Besides selecting rows from columns, SELECT can also select single values or expressions.

These are treated as if they were rows with the same name as the input expression.

SELECT 1;

Output:

+---+
| 1 |
+---+
| 1 |
+---+

Input:

SELECT 1 + 1;

+-------+
| 1 + 1 |
+-------+
|     2 |
+-------+

It is also possible to generate multiple rows as:

SELECT 1,2

Output:

+---+---+
| 1 | 2 |
+---+---+
| 1 | 2 |
+---+---+

Multiple rows can be achieved with:

SELECT 1,2,3
UNION ALL
SELECT 4,5,6;

Output:

+---+---+---+
| 1 | 2 | 3 |
+---+---+---+
| 4 | 5 | 6 |
+---+---+---+

WHERE

Filter only certain rows.

Any function or operator that returns a boolean can be used by substituting the value of the row by its name (c0, c1, etc.):

It is not possible to refer to a column that have be created in the query via AS or an aggregate function on the same command as in (1) and (2).

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (2, 0);
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 = 0;
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 <> 0;
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 BETWEEN 0 AND 1;
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 IN(0, 2);
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 > 0 AND C0 < 2;
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 > 0 AND NOT (C0 > 2);
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 = 0 OR c0 = 2;
SELECT c0+c1 AS sum FROM t WHERE sum > 0;     #(1)
SELECT c0+c1        FROM t WHERE `c0+c1` > 0; #(2)
DROP TABLE t;

It would of course be possible to get all the results and then filter them using a programming language, but the list of all results might be too long.

DISTINCT

Only show each value of a column tuple once:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 0);
SELECT DISTINCT c0    FROM t ORDER BY c0;
SELECT DISTINCT c0,c1 FROM t ORDER BY c0,c1;
SELECT DISTINCT *     FROM t ORDER BY c0,c1;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

c0
0
1

c0   c1
0    0
0    1
1    0

c0   c1
0    0
0    1
1    0

SELECT DISTINCT is applied after aggregate functions, so you probably don’t to use them together.

If you want to do that, consider one of the following solutions:

  • the DISTICT form of the aggregate function SUM(DISTINCT ),
  • subquery
  • GROUP BY. Can be used to emulate DISTINCT, the only problem is that you have to type all columns twice.

Examples:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 0);
SELECT DISTINCT SUM(c0) FROM t;
SELECT SUM(DISTINCT c0) FROM t;
SELECT SUM(t2.c0) FROM (SELECT DISTINCT c0 FROM t) AS t2;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

SUM(c0)
2

SUM(DISTINCT c0)
1

SUM(t2.c0)
1

Prepared statements

Syntax error because of missing quote:

SELECT * FROM t WHERE s = ?;

With quote, it has no special meaning:

CREATE TABLE t (s CHAR(1));
INSERT INTO t VALUES ('a');
INSERT INTO t VALUES ("?");
SELECT * FROM t WHERE s = '?';
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

s
?

Strings are escaped:

CREATE TABLE t (s CHAR(1));
INSERT INTO t VALUES ('a');
INSERT INTO t VALUES ("'");
PREPARE stmt1 FROM 'SELECT * FROM t WHERE s = ?';
SET @a = "'";
EXECUTE stmt1 USING @a;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

s
'

Subqueries

Select can also work on query results output from other commands such as other SELECT or UNION.

WHERE + IN:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (0), (1), (2);
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 < 2 AND c0 IN (
    SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 > 0
);
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

c0
1

It is mandatory to rename the subquery as something using AS or else this produces an error.

OK:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9);
SELECT MAX(c0) FROM (
    SELECT c0 FROM t
) AS t2;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

MAX(c0)
3

Error:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9);
SELECT MAX(c0) FROM (
    SELECT c0 FROM t
);
DROP TABLE t;

WHERE + MAX to get the row where a given value is maximum:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9);
SELECT * FROM t WHERE c0 = (
    SELECT MAX(c0) FROM t
);
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

c0  c1
3   9

AS

Rename columns and subquery tables.

Rename columns:

SELECT 1 AS one, 2 AS two;

Output:

one two
1   2

The AS keyword is not mandatory, but is considered by the manual itself to be better style.

SELECT 1 one, 2 two;

Output:

one two
1   2

Useful to reduce code duplication:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9);
SELECT MAX(sum) FROM (
    SELECT c0 + c1 AS sum FROM t WHERE c0 > 0
) AS t2;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

MAX(sum)
12

It would also be possible to do the same via:

CREATE TABLE t (c0 INT, c1 INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9);
SELECT MAX(`c0 + c1`) FROM (
    SELECT c0 + c1 FROM t WHERE c0 > 0
) AS t2;
DROP TABLE t;

Output:

MAX(`c0 + c1`)
12

but that would be bad since it duplicates the calculation code c0 + c1.

The above example is not the best way to achieve this task since MAX(c0 + c1) would work too.

Mandatory to rename subqueries. See subquery.

Useful to disambiguate output headers when there are multiple tables with identical column names:

CREATE TABLE t  (i INT);
CREATE TABLE t2 (i INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES  (1);
INSERT INTO t2 VALUES (2);
# Ambiguous header names.
SELECT * FROM t, t2 ORDER BY t.i, t2.i;
# Not ambiguous header names.
SELECT t.i AS `t.i`, t2.i AS `t2.i` FROM t, t2;
DROP TABLE t, t2;

Output:

t   t
1   2

t.i t2.i
1   2

Renaming tables is useful to reduce code size:

CREATE TABLE long_table_name1 (i INT);
CREATE TABLE long_table_name2 (j INT);
INSERT INTO long_table_name1 VALUES (1);
INSERT INTO long_table_name2 VALUES (2);
SELECT t1.i, t2.i
    FROM long_table_name1 AS t1, long_table_name2 AS t2
    ORDER BY t1.i, t2.i;
DROP TABLE long_table_name1, long_table_name2;

Output:

i   j
1   2

Reuse AS

Goal:

SELECT 1 AS one, one AS two;

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6085443/can-i-resuse-a-calculated-field-in-a-select-query

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